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Humans have been melting iron ore through a process called smelting for thousands of years

  Humans have been melting iron ore through a process called smelting for thousands of years. Molten or semi-molten iron would be hammered (forged) or poured into their desired shapes and allowed to cool. People quickly discovered that the properties of the finished product (strength, ductility, longevity) could be controlled in many ways; manipulating cooling time and conditions or adding/removing certain media for example. Carbon steel pipe fittings was one such popular derivative of raw iron made by introducing elemental carbon into the smelting process in the form of charcoal. As useful as steel was, it was time and labor intensive to produce, thus making it generally a poor material for mass consumption. In the mid 19th century, the Bessemer process was patented where by molten pig iron (cheaply made and full of high carbon, silicon, and manganese impurities) is subject to blasts of oxygen which oxidize the impurities thus making them simple to remove from the molten steel. This method of removing excess elements was much easier and cheaper than adding alloying elements to iron, and is directly responsible for the industrial revolution and the beginning of the mass production of carbon steel. Today the technology has changed, but the same basic principles of the Bessemer Process are still the backbone for modern raw steel production.

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ранее.:Steel pipe sizes and shipping weight per foot are important issues in the steel pipe industry
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